Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (the Second Kashmir War) began on August 5, 1965 with Operation Gibraltar. Operation Gibraltar was a Pakistani operation in which Pakistani soldiers crossed the border into Kashmir disguised as locals in order to spark seemingly authentic uprising movements against India. It proved to be unsuccessful due to Pakistan’s miscalculation regarding the people of Kashmir’s discontent toward India. On August 15, 1965 Indian soldiers crossed the border into Kashmir. On September 1, 1965 Pakistan initiated a counterattack, Operation Grand Slam. Its objective was to capture the strategic town of Akhnoor in Jammu in order to sever communication and supply routes to the Indian army.
After the battle of Asal Uttar it was clear that the war was headed toward a stalemate. The Soviet Union held ceasefire negotiations. Both India and Pakistan agreed to withdraw by February 25, 1966 at the latest. On September 22, 1966 the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution that called for a ceasefire from both nations. On September 23, 1966 the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 officially ended.
Questions to Consider:
1. Is the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 of significance to your country? What is your country’s position regarding the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965?
2. What actions did the Security Council take in order to end the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 and 1965? Take into consideration previous Security Council resolutions regarding the Indo-Pakistani Wars and whether or not they were effective and provided a permanent solution.
3. What actions could the Security Council take in order to permanently resolve the Kashmir boarder dispute between India and Pakistan?