Brad S. Gregory (Ph.D., Princeton University) is Professor of History and Dorothy G. Griffin Collegiate Chair at the University of Notre Dame, where he is also the Director of the Notre Dame Institute for Advanced Study. Before arriving at Notre Dame, he taught at Stanford University and was a Junior Fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows. He specializes in the history of Christianity in Europe during the Reformation and on the long-term influence of this era on the modern world.
Before 2008, scholars assumed that the
hairstyles depicted on ancient Roman female portraiture were
universally false—either wigs or invented by the sculptor with
no reference to the subject’s “actual” hair. Janet
Stephens’ overturned this assumption after rediscovering the
Roman practice of sewing hairstyles together using needle and
In Arabia a man named Muhammad, who was born c.
570 CE, is said to have received a series of communications from
God between 610 and 632 CE.
These communications subsequently were recorded in writing,
collected, and redacted in the text known as the Quran. On one
occasion, the Quran refers to Muhammad as “the seal of
Prophets,” a phrase that is understood by all Muslims as
signifying that prophecy came to an end upon Muhammad’s death