Cafiero -- Theoretical and Computational Chemistry

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Summer 2014: Front: Katie Hatstat ′16, Hallie Weems ′15, Prof. Mauricio Cafiero, Diana Bigler, ′15. (Not Pictured: Mallory Morris ′16 and Sarah Johnson ′15)


Current Theoretical Chemistry group members

Theoretical Chemistry Group Alumnae

Former Group Pictures


 

The MERCURY Consortium

Professor Cafiero′s group is a member of the MERCURY Consortium, a group of computational and theoretical chemists at Liberal Arts colleges all around the country. This group has had continuous NSF funding for shared high-performance computing resources for the past ten years.

Computational/Experimental collaboration

Professor Cafiero′s group collaborates with the synthetic and bio-organic research group of Professor Larryn Peterson. Collaborative projects include a study of ligand binding in sulfotransferase enzymes.

Ligand / Protein Binding

Much of our recent work has focused on the weak interactions between ring-shaped molecules. These ring-shaped molecules are very stable in the body and thus our physiology uses them in many ways. Most recently we have focused on the interactions between dopamine-analogue-molecules and sulfotransferase enzymes. Sulfotransferases help to moderate small molecule transport in the body and can activate or deactive bioactive molecules. We hope that our study will help to identify the mechanism of the selectivity of these enzymes. 

Some of our other work involves studying the interaction of a model intercalant molecule with small portions of DNA. We hope to identify what portions of DNA an intercalant molecule is most likely to stick to and we hope to characterize and quantify this interaction. This work can help in developing new chemotherapies to treat cancer more effectively.

                               
The enzyme Tyrosine hydroxylase.

Models for aromatic binding

In order to perform theoretical work on enzymes and biomolecules, we need good quantum mechanical methods that work well for these types of systems. We study these methods for the purpose of evaluating which ones are best for biological applications.

                              
Electrostatic potential map of two benzene molecule bound together.


Current Students in the Theoretical chemistry group

Diana Bigler, 2015

Projects: Diana is studying the interactions of ligands with sulfotransferase and glucoronyltransferase enzymes.

Conference presentations:

1. 11th MERCURY conference (2012, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between acetaminophen and the glucosyltransferase active site.”

2. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2013, Memphis, TN), Oral: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of Two Sulfotransferase Enzymes.”

3. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2013, New Orleans, LA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of Two Sulfotransferase Enzymes.”

4. 12th MERCURY conference (2013, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A3.”

5. Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2013,Jackson, MS), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A3.”

6. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2014, Memphis, TN), Oral: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A3.”

7. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2014, Dallas, TX), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A3.”

Hallie Weems, 2015

Projects: Hallie is studying the interactions of ligands with sulfotransferase enzymes.

Conference presentations:

1. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2013, Memphis, TN), Oral: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of Two Sulfotransferase Enzymes.”

2. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2013, New Orleans, LA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of Two Sulfotransferase Enzymes.”

3. Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2013, Jackson, MS), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A1.”

4. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2014, Memphis, TN), Oral: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A1.”

5. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2014, Dallas, TX), Poster: “MP2 and DFT Analysis of the Ligand Selectivity of a Sulfotransferase Enzyme: SULT1A1.”

Katie Hatstat, 2016

Projects: Katie is designing inhibitors for the COMT enzyme.

Publications:

1.K.M. DiGiovanni, A. Katherine Hatstat, Jennifer Rote and M. Cafiero, “MP2//DFT Calculations of Interaction Energies Between Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen Analogues and the Aryl Sulfotransferase Active Site.” Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, DOI: 10.1016/j.comptc.2012.12.004.

Conference presentations:

1. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2014, Memphis, TN), Oral: “The Role of Solvation in the Binding of Morphine, Met-enkephalin, and Other Ligands to the Acetylcholine Binding Protein and μ Opioid Receptor.”

2. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2014, Dallas, TX), Poster: “The Role of Solvation in the Binding of Morphine, Met-enkephalin, and Other Ligands to the Acetylcholine Binding Protein and μ Opioid Receptor.”

Mallory Morris, 2016

Projects: Mallory is designing inhibitors for the COMT enzyme..

 


Alumnae of the Theoretical Chemistry group

See Theoretical Chemistry Group member Michelle Shroyer in the Real Rhodes!

See Former Theoretical Chemistry Group member Karina Van Sickle as a Faces of Rhodes!


Rachel Sanders, 2014 - Currently a pharmacy student at Georgia Medical College.

Projects: Rachel is studying ligands that may bind in allosteric sites in HMG-CoA reductase and act to moderate the body′s production of cholesterol.

Conference presentations:

1.University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN), Oral: “MP2 and DFT study of non-competitive inhibitors of HGM-CoA reductase.”

2. 11th MERCURY conference (2012, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT study of non-competitive inhibitors of HGM-CoA reductase.”

3. 21st Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2012, Jackson, MS), Poster: “An MP2 and DFT Study of the Selectivity of NADP Binding Sites for Novel Ligands.”

4. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2013, Memphis, TN), Oral: “An MP2 and DFT Study of the Selectivity of NADP Binding Sites for Novel Ligands.”

5. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2013, New Orleans, LA), Poster: “An MP2 and DFT Study of the Selectivity of NADP Binding Sites for Novel Ligands.”

Alli Dewar, 2014 - Currently a Chemistry graduate student at University of Michigan.

 

Projects: Alli designed inhibitors for the LpxC enzyme.

Conference presentations:

1.University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2014, Memphis, TN), Oral: “An MP2 and DFT Study of Natural Substrate Analog Interactions in the LpxC Active Site.”

2. 247th American Chemical Society National Conference (2014, Dallas, TX), Poster: “An MP2 and DFT Study of Natural Substrate Analog Interactions in the LpxC Active Site.”

Ashley Tufton, 2013

Projects: Ashley is studying the intercalation of different ligands in DNA models.

Conference presentations:

1. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN), Oral: “The effects of solvent and backbone charge on DNA-intercalant interactions.”

2. 243rd American Chemical Society National Conference (2012, San Diego, CA), Poster: “The effects of solvent and backbone charge on DNA-intercalant interactions.”

3. 11th MERCURY conference (2012, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “Interactions of Boronated and Non-boronated Intercalants in Small Nucleic Acid Models.”

4. 21st Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2012, Jackson, MS), Poster: “Interactions of Boronated and Non-boronated Intercalants in Small Nucleic Acid Models.”

5. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2013, Memphis, TN), Oral: “Interactions of Boronated and Non-boronated Intercalants in Small Nucleic Acid Models.”

6. 245th American Chemical Society National Conference (2013, New Orleans, LA), Poster: “Interactions of Boronated and Non-boronated Intercalants in Small Nucleic Acid Models.”

  • Kelly Allison, 2012 (Honors Research) - Currently a student at the University of Arkansas School of Medicine

Conference presentations:

1. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (Memphis, TN), Talk: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

2. American Chemical Society National Conference (Anaheim, CA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

3. 10th MERCURY Conference (2011, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

4. 20th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2011, Jackson, MS), Poster: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

5. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN),Talk: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

6. 243rd American Chemical Society National Conference (2012, San Diego, CA), Poster: “MP2 and DFT calculations of the interaction energies between boronated aromatic molecules and small DNA models: applications to cancer therapy.”

  • Zoe Clark, 2012 (Honors Research) - Currently a medical student at University of New Mexico

Conference presentations:

1. 9th MERCURY conference(Clinton, NY), August 2010 “A Comparison of Correlated Ab Initio Methods and ONIOM Methods for Modeling Protein-Drug Interactions: Novel Statin Drugs.”

2. 20th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2011, Jackson, MS), Poster: “A model for methylation of cytosine: a potential marker for cancer.”

3.University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN), Oral: “A model for methylation of cytosine: a potential marker for cancer.”

4.243rd American Chemical Society National Conference (2012, San Diego, CA), Poster: “A model for methylation of cytosine: a potential marker for cancer.”

  • Erin Carter, 2012 (Honors Research)

Publications:

1. E. A. Kee, M. C. Livengood, E. E. Carter, M. L. McKenna, and M. Cafiero, “Aromatic Interactions in the Binding of Ligands to HMGCoA Reductase.” J. Phys. Chem. B. 113, 14810 (2009).

Conference presentations:

1.Mercury 2009 Conference, August 2009 (Clinton, NY)

2.18th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (Jackson, MS), “Nicotine binding and charge migration in AChBP’s aromatic box.”

3.9th MERCURY Conference (Clinton, NY), August 2010 “Ligand binding and charge migration in AChBP’s aromatic box.”

4.20th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2011, Jackson, MS), Poster: “Ligand binding and charge migration in AChBP’s aromatic box.”

5.University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN), Poster. “Nicotine binding and charge migration in AChBP’s aromatic box.”

6.243rd American Chemical Society National Conference (San Diego, CA), Poster: “Ligand binding and charge migration in Achbp’s aromatic box.”

  • Katherine DiGiovanni, 2012 - Currently a medical student at UT Medical School, Memphis

Publications:

1.K.M. DiGiovanni, A. Katherine Hatstat, Jennifer Rote and M. Cafiero, “MP2//DFT Calculations of Interaction Energies Between Acetaminophen and Acetaminophen Analogues and the Aryl Sulfotransferase Active Site.” Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, DOI: 10.1016/j.comptc.2012.12.004.

Conference presentations:

1. 10th MERCURY Conference (2011, Lewisburg, PA), Poster: “MP2 calculations of the interaction energies of acetaminophen and acetaminophen analogues in aryl sulfotransferase.”

2. 20th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (2011, Jackson, MS), Poster: “MP2 calculations of the interaction energies of acetaminophen and acetaminophen analogues in aryl sulfotransferase.”

3. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (2012, Memphis, TN),Talk: “MP2 calculations of the interaction energies of acetaminophen and acetaminophen analogues in aryl sulfotransferase.”

4. 243rd American Chemical Society National Conference (2012, San Diego, CA), Poster: “MP2 calculations of the interaction energies of acetaminophen and acetaminophen analogues in aryl sulfotransferase.”

  • Caroline Lee, 2011 (Honors Research) - Currently a medical student at Louisiana State University - New Orleans

Publications:

1. L.R. Hofto, C. E. Lee, and M.Cafiero “Scaling gradient dependant corrections to LSDA DFT methods for aromatic interactions: applications to Tryptophan hydroxylase” J. Comp. Chem. 30, 1111 (2009).

Conference presentations:

1. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2008 (New Orleans, La) "Evaluation of novel DFT methods for dispersion-like forces in protein-ligand systems."

2. ESPA 2008, September 2008 (Palma de Mallorca, Spain) "Protein-Ligand Interaction Energies in Tryptophan Hydroxylase and Amino Acid Decarboxylase: Implications for the Production of Serotonin."

3. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2009 (Salt Lake City, Utah) "Dispersion and induction forces in serotonin synthesis: DFT and ab initio results."

4. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2010 (San Fransisco, Ca) "Dispersion and induction forces in serotonin synthesis: DFT and ab initio results."

5. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (Memphis, TN), Talk: “Quantum chemical analysis of ligand binding in the dopa decarboxylase active site and in silico design of novel ligands with improved active site binding affinity."

6. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2011 (Anaheim, Ca),“Quantum chemical analysis of ligand binding in the dopa decarboxylase active site and in silico design of novel ligands with improved active site binding affinity.”

  • Michelle Shroyer, 2011 (Honors Research) - Currently Research Associate at the Children′s Hospital of Alabama.

Publications:

1. K. Van Sickle, M. C. Shroyer, and M. Cafiero, “The effect of aromaticity and bond conjugation on dispersion-like forces between singly substituted six-membered carbon rings.” J. Molec. Structure: THEOCHEM. 941, 78 (2010).

Conference presentations:

1. 18th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (Jackson, MS), “Ab Initio and DFT Calculations of Ligand-Nucleic Acid Binding Models.”

2. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2010 (San Fransisco, Ca),“Ab Initio and DFT Calculations of Ligand-Nucleic Acid Binding Models.”

3. Council on Undergraduate Research, Posters on the Hill (Washington, DC), “Ab Initio and DFT Calculations of Ligand-Nucleic Acid Binding Models.”

4. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (Memphis, TN), Talk: “Increasingly complex models for intercalation of a planar molecule between DNA bases: MP2, DFT and ONIOM results.”

5. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2011 (Anaheim, Ca),“Increasingly complex models for intercalation of a planar molecule between DNA bases: MP2, DFT and ONIOM results.”

  • Allison Price, 2011 (Honors Research) - Currently a medical student at the University of Texas, San Antonio

Publications:

1. H.E. Utkov, A.M. Price, and M. Cafiero, “MP2, Density Functional Theory, and Semi-empirical calculations of the interaction energies between a series of statin-drug-like molecules and the HMG-CoA reductase active site.” Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 967, 171 (2011).

Conference presentations:

1. 18th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (Jackson, MS), “Fragment based design of novel cholesterol moderating drugs using ab initio and DFT methods.”

2. 9th MERCURY Conference(Clinton, NY), “A Comparison of Correlated Ab Initio Methods and ONIOM Methods for Modeling Protein-Drug Interactions: Novel Statin Drugs.”

3. University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (Memphis, TN), Talk: “Use of MP2, DFT and semi-emperical calculations of protein-ligand interaction energies and ab initio QSAR in the development of novel statin drugs.”

  • Liz Jeans, 2011  - Currently a medical student at Rush Medical College

Conference presentations:

1.18th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (Jackson, MS), “A Comparison of Complete Basis Set Extrapolated CCSD(T) and DFT Methods for the Interaction Energies of Various Benzene and Borazine Dimers.”

2.American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2010 (San Fransisco, Ca), “A Comparison of Complete Basis Set Extrapolated CCSD(T) and DFT Methods for the Interaction Energies of Various Benzene and Borazine Dimers.”

3.University of Memphis Undergraduate Chemistry Conference (Memphis, TN), Talk: “A comparison of complete basis set extrapolated CCSD(T) and DFT methods for the interaction energies of benzene and borazine molecules in complex with solvents and proteins: the role of boronated molecules in cancer treatment."

4. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2011 (Anaheim, Ca),“A comparison of complete basis set extrapolated CCSD(T) and DFT methods for the interaction energies of benzene and borazine molecules in complex with solvents and proteins: the role of boronated molecules in cancer treatment.”

  • Hunter Utkov, 2010, Currently a medical student at the University of Texas, San Antonio

Publications:

1. H.E. Utkov, M. Livengood and M. Cafiero, "Using Density Functional Theory Methods for Modeling Induction and Dispersion Interactions in Ligand-Protein Complexes.” Annual Reports in Computational Chemistry, Sixth Edition.

2. H.E. Utkov, A.M. Price, and M. Cafiero, “MP2, Density Functional Theory, and Semi-empirical calculations of the interaction energies between a series of statin-drug-like molecules and the HMG-CoA reductase active site.” Computational and Theoretical Chemistry, 967, 171 (2011).

Conference presentations:

1. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2009 (Salt Lake City, Utah) "Functional group based design of novel cholesterol moderating drugs using Ab Initio and DFT methods."

2. 13th International Congress of Quantum Chemistry, June 2009 (Helsinki, Finland) "Functional group based design of novel cholesterol moderating drugs using Ab Initio and DFT methods."

3. American chemical Society National Conference, March 2010 (San Francisco, Ca) "Functional group based design of novel cholesterol moderating drugs using Ab Initio and DFT methods."

  • Laura Hofto, 2010 (Honors Research) - Dentist, Knoxville, TN.

Publications:

1. L. R. Hofto, K. Van Sickle, and M. Cafiero, “Evaluation of sandwich-type electronic interactions in fourteen polyaromatic molecules.” Int. J. Quantum Chem., DOI: 10.1002/qua.21426.

2. L.R. Hofto, M.E. Hofto, J.N. Cross, and M. Cafiero, “Using simple molecular orbital calculations to predict disease: fast DFT methods applied to enzymes implicated in PKU, Parkinson’s diseas, and obsessive compulsive disorder.” AIP Conf. Proc., 940, 127-136 (2007).

3. L.R. Hofto, C.E. Lee, and M.Cafiero “Scaling gradient dependant corrections to LSDA DFT methods for aromatic interactions: applications to Tryptophan hydroxylase” J. Comp. Chem. 30, 1111 (2009).

Conference presentations:

1. Complife, October 2007 (Utretch, The Netherlands) "Using simple molecular orbital calculations to predict disease."

2. Mercury 2007 Conference, August 2007 (Clinton, NY) "Novel Density Functional Theory methods for describing Dispersion Interactions."

3. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2008 (New Orleans, La) "Evaluation of novel DFT methods for dispersion-like forces in protein-ligand systems."

4. ESPA 2008, September 2008 (Palma de Mallorca, Spain) "Protein-Ligand Interaction Energies in Tryptophan Hydroxylase and Amino Acid Decarboxylase: Implications for the Production of Serotonin."

5. 18th Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry (Jackson, MS), “Molecular Modeling of the Metabolism of Acetaminophen and Acetaminophenlike Molecules.”

6. American chemical Society National Conference, March 2010 (San Francisco, Ca), “Molecular Modeling of the Metabolism of Acetaminophen and Acetaminophenlike Molecules.”

  • Meghan Hofto, 2007 (Honors Research) -  Medical Doctor, Birmingham, AL.

Publications:

1.  M. E. Hofto , A. Godfrey_Kittle, and M. Cafiero " Substrate-Protein interaction energy in the enzyme Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: DFT and ab initio Results ",  THEOCHEM, doi:10.1016/j.theochem.2007.01.023

2. M. E. Hofto, J.N. Cross, and M. Cafiero "Interaction energies between tetrahydrobiopterin analogues and phenylalanine residues in tyrosine  hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase.", Physical Chemistry B, DOI: 10.1021/jp072518w.

Conference presentations:

1. American Chemical Society National Meeting, March 2007 (Chicago, Il), Poster: “Protein/ligand interactions in Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: DFT and ab initio results.”  

2. Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry, November 2006 (Jackson, MS), Poster: “Density Functional Theory methods for dispersion interactions in proteins.”

  • Lori Culberson, 2008 (Honors Research) - Post-Doctoral Fellow, Sandia National Lab.

Publications:

1.K. Van Sickle, L.M. Culberson, J.L. Holzmacher and M. Cafiero, “Evaluation of Density Functional Theory methods for the electronic interactions between indole and substituted benzene: Applications to Horseradish Peroxidase”. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 107, 1523-1531 (2007).

Conference presentations: 

1. Mercury 2007 Conference, August 2007 (Clinton, NY) "Novel Density Functional Theory methods for describing Dispersion Interactions."

2. CCTCC 2007, November 2007 (Jackson, Ms) “Two-electron DFT methods for modeling dispersion interactions”

3. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2008 (New Orleans, La) “Two-electron DFT methods for modeling dispersion interactions”

  • Jessica Cross, 2008 - Post-Doctoral Fellow, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory.

Publications:

1. M. E. Hofto, J.N. Cross, and M. Cafiero "Interaction energies between tetrahydrobiopterin analogues and phenylalanine residues in tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylalanine hydroxylase.", Physical Chemistry B, DOI: 10.1021/jp072518w .

2. Hofto, L.R., Hofto, M.E., Cross, J.N., and Cafiero, M., “Using simple molecular orbital calculations to predict disease: fast DFT methods applied to enzymes implicated in PKU, Parkinson’s diseas, and obsessive compulsive disorder.” AIP Conf. Proc., 940, 127-136 (2007).

Conference presentations:

1. American Chemical Society National Meeting, March 2007 (Chicago, Il), Poster: “Protein/ligand interactions in Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: DFT and ab initio results.”  

2. Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry, November 2006 (Jackson, MS), Poster: “Density Functional Theory methods for dispersion interactions in proteins.”

3. CCTCC 2007, November 2007 (Jackson, Ms) “Can DFT dissolv CO2 in water?"

4. American Chemical Society National Conference, March 2008 (New Orleans, La) “Can DFT dissolve CO2 in water?”

  • Karina Van Sickle, 2008 - Doctor of Physical Therapy.

Publications:

1. L. R. Hofto, K. Van Sickle, and M. Cafiero, “Evaluation of sandwich-type electronic interactions in fourteen polyaromatic molecules.” Int. J. Quantum Chem., DOI: 10.1002/qua.21426. 

2. K. Van Sickle, L.M. Culberson, J.L. Holzmacher and M. Cafiero, “Evaluation of Density Functional Theory methods for the electronic interactions between indole and substituted benzene: Applications to Horseradish Peroxidase”. Int. J. Quantum Chem. 107, 1523-1531 (2007).

3. K. Van Sickle, M. C. Shroyer, and M. Cafiero, “The effect of aromaticity and bond conjugation on dispersion-like forces between singly substituted six-membered carbon rings.” J. Molec. Structure: THEOCHEM. 941, 78 (2010).


Group Pictures

Spring 2013: Front: Ashley Tufton ′13, Alli Dewar ′14, Diana Bigler ′15; second row: Rachel Sanders ′14, Jennifer Rote ′15; back: Hallie Weems ′15, Katie Hatstat ′16 .

Spring, 2010: Front: Michelle Shroyer (11), Allison Price (11), Caroline Lee (11); back: Katherine Digiovanni(12), Kelly Allison (12) and Liz Jeans (11).